The starting point for an accurate forecast is an accurate representation of the atmosphere’s current state. This is why MetService operates extensive observing and weather modelling programmes and runs a large 24/7 forecasting operation. For much more about this, see the blog on MetService’s Investment in Forecasting and TVNZ’s recent Breakfast programme: “How does the weather work”.
The 7-day rain forecast on www.metservice.com is very useful for planning purposes, with the maps showing pressure, direction and strength of wind, and where rain is expected to fall. The forecast is in the form of a series of maps, which are also provided in a player, so you can animate the series of maps to see how the situation could change over the period of time.
Our 3-day model provides a closer look at New Zealand. On these charts, the thick purple line is a guide to where precipitation may fall as snow.
However, computers deal only in numbers and don’t give the complete story – this is where human expertise comes into play. Trained forecasters do things that weather models cannot, for example:
Consider, in real time, conflicting information – from models and observations – and determine which outcomes are more likely, based on an understanding of the weather situation
Steer a steady course when the model forecasts are “jumping” from run to run
Reconcile observed and forecast weather and recognise when the forecast needs changing (regardless of what the models say)
Explain the weather, particularly to those who are managing weather-related risks (people talk to people; computers talk to computers)
It is vitally important for forecasts (and updates as they happen) to be communicated in a measured, timely and credible manner.
On Wednesday 10 August, days before the outbreak, MetService published a media release and contacted farming organisations, to alert those with a real need to plan in advance about what forecasters were anticipating. Snow and cold would have a large impact to farmers in the lambing and calving season so this was highlighted in the news release.
Because of the chaotic nature of the atmosphere (and the variation of predictability with time), the forecast for a given day (or time) in the future can change as we get closer to it. This is why the forecast issued on a Monday for the weekend to come might be very different to the forecast issued on, say, the Thursday of the same week.
This polar blast was long lived and delivered snow to many regions of the country. While heavier snowfalls have been recorded before in some regions, this is undoubtedly the most widespread and prolonged event since 1939 – the subject of a blog by Erick Brenstrum.
It’s early days in a weather event which is likely to be memorable for its coldness.
Below is a satellite image for midday Sunday. The wind flow over New Zealand is generally from the southwest; the coldest showery air has made its way onto Fiordland, Southland, Otago and south Canterbury.
It’s not raining or snowing over all of southern New Zealand because the wind flow is more or less lined up with the South Island, thereby sheltering some places, and because the precipitation is showery.
The surface temperature doesn’t necessarily tell the whole story. Below is a graph of the air temperature for the 24 hours from 1:00pm Saturday 13 August to 1:00pm Sunday 14 August. Note how the air temperature at Invercargill Airport and Nugget Point, both fairly open to the southwest, has been on a pretty steady downward trend. At 2:00pm Sunday, the temperature at Nugget Point was 1.0 C and the wind speed was 85 km/h. Brrr.
At Timaru Airport, on the other hand, the temperature rose sharply when the southwest change arrived mid Sunday morning – the reverse of what might be expected. The period overnight Saturday to dawn Sunday at Timaru Airport was one of clear skies and fairly light winds, so the quickly-cooling land surface during this period cooled the air immediately above it and an inversion formed. When the southwest change arrived, the air once again became well-mixed. But this southwest air is expected to also become steadily colder.
4:15pm Sunday 14 August 2011
Here’s another look at why the surface temperature doesn’t necessarily tell the whole story.
In my blog post about the winter storm of early July 2011, I partially explained how showers may form in cold air moving over a warmer sea surface. The (relatively) warm sea heats “blobs” of the air immediately above it; these blobs then ascend because they are less dense than surrounding air. For the ascending process to continue, the surrounding air must remain relatively cooler than the ascending warm blobs. Thus, it is important to have information – that is, observations and forecasts – about the vertical temperature structure of the atmosphere.
Observations of the temperature structure of the atmosphere are primarily made using weather balloons. Below is a graph of the temperature at three levels in the atmosphere above Invercargill, obtained from radiosonde balloon flights. The blue line is the temperature at about 5000ft, the red line is the temperature at about 10000ft, and the green line is the temperature at about 18000ft. These heights are approximate; the height of a given pressure level varies with the air temperature; here, we should probably discuss the idea of the thickness of an atmospheric layer – but I think we’ll do that some other time.
Anyway, the graph shows that the atmosphere above Invercargill has been cooling off steadily since the middle of Saturday 13 August. In depth, it is now very cold.
6:15pm Sunday 14 August 2011
It snowed quite heavily in Wellington City, above about 100 metres, from approximately 4:30pm for at least an hour. This is the heaviest and most widespread snowfall in Wellington City for at least 30 50 years.
At midday Sunday 14 August the freezing level around Wellington, obtained from the Paraparaumu radiosonde balloon flight, was just over 1000 metres and falling (it was around 1600 metres at midnight Saturday 13 August). But late on Sunday afternoon, it would still have been well above the level to which snow fell in Wellington. Snow starts melting once it falls below the freezing level – but the melting process draws heat from the surrounding air, which lowers its temperature; thus, the melting snow “drags” the freezing level down with it, at least for a while. How far the freezing level within the area of falling snow is dragged towards the ground depends mostly on the intensity of the snowfall and the vertical variation of temperature and humidity of the air it is falling into.
1:00pm Monday 15 August 2011
So far in this blog, I’ve been talking quite a bit about the temperature throughout the depth of the troposphere (the troposphere is the part of the atmosphere in which weather systems exist). Time, now for a picture. Below is a plot of:
Forecast temperature (colours) at the 500 hPa level (roughly 18,000 ft, or about halfway up the troposphere)
Forecast wind speed (black lines) at the 250 hPa level (near the top of the troposphere)
… for midday Monday 15 August.
The colours in this plot are forecast temperature; over most of New Zealand, the temperature at around 18,000 ft was forecast to be -30 C or lower. The important thing to note is that a large mass of Antarctic air covers almost all of New Zealand.
The red arrow on this plot shows the forecast position of the axis of strongest winds, near the top of the troposphere, at midday Monday 15 August. This is the polar jet, on the border between the deep pool of Antarctic air over New Zealand and the warmer mid-latitude air around it.
Incidentally, the forecast temperatures compare very well with the observed temperatures at midday Monday 15 August, as shown in the table below.
Forecast 500 hPa temperature (C)
Observed 500 hPa temperature (C)
4:30pm Monday 15 August 2011
Here’s a graph of how the freezing level over New Zealand has changed over the last few days.
As of midday Monday 15 August, the freezing level varied between about 1000 ft at Invercargill to about 2000 ft at Whenuapai. Snow has fallen to sea level in many parts of southern and central New Zealand – that is, to at least 1000 ft below the freezing level.
This is a classic example of the melting effect (see the post made at 6:15pm Sunday 14 August 2011, above). Over the last few days, MetService’s Severe Weather Forecasters have spent a lot of time considering how far below the freezing level snow would fall. This requires a good understanding of cloud physics.
9:30am Tuesday 16 August 2011
Here’s a few photos from the Wellington snow of June 1976.
10:30am Tuesday 16 August 2011
In southerly flows, the West Coast of the South Island is well sheltered by the Southern Alps. Since the southerly took hold on Sunday, the air on the West Coast has been very dry because of the Foehn Effect.
Below is a graph of the dew point temperature (the temperature which air must be cooled to for water vapour to condense into water liquid or water solid) at Hokitika Airport from 10am Sunday 14 August to 10am Tuesday 16 August. On the afternoon and evening of Sunday 14 August, there’s a huge change in dew point (around 13 degrees), down to around -10 C. Since then, the dew point has remained negative, generally fluctuating between about -3 C in the morning and -7 C in the afternoon. Such a low dew point makes the air feel much colder than its temperature would suggest. We take the dew point into account when calculating the “feels like” temperature.
2:30pm Tuesday 16 August 2011
This event has been characterised by many places having low daytime (maximum) temperatures.
Maximum temperature on
Lowest daily maximum temperature on record
Month / year occurred in
Monday’s max temperature is the lowest since …
15 August 2011
New Plymouth Airport
25 July 2011 and 12 July 1951
Napier (Nelson Park)
25 July 2011 and 17 July 1995
Monday night / Tuesday morning was very cold in some places, though. Here’s a few notable overnight minima from MetService automatic weather stations.
Waiouru Automatic Weather Station
-7.7 C (new record for August)
Blenheim Airport Automatic Weather Station
-6.2 C (new record)
Rotorua Airport Automatic Weather Station
-5.2 C (equals record)
Taupo Airport Automatic Weather Station
5:00pm Tuesday 16 August 2011
Below is a plot of where the air arriving at an altitude of 500 metres above Auckland at midday Monday 15 August came from. Four days previously, it was over the Antarctic landmass; two days previously, it was still over the Antarctic sea ice. The Antarctic sea ice edge is close to its northern-most extent and is near latitude 60 degrees South. Thus, the air arriving at Auckland passed very quickly over the relatively warm ocean between the Antarctic ice edge and New Zealand. In contrast, the air from the Southern Ocean which arrived over Auckland on Saturday 9 July (see my blog post on the stormy period of early July 2011) had travelled over a much longer stretch of ocean, over a longer period of time, and consequently was warmer and moister.
6:00pm Tuesday 16 August 2011
As of 2:00pm Tuesday 16 August 2011, the extent of snowfall in this storm is as shown in the image below.
4:00pm Wednesday 17 August 2011
During the next few days, while an anticyclone advances onto the country, the general wind flow will decrease in strength and the depth of cloud along eastern coasts gradually reduce. Near sea level the air over New Zealand remains very cold, and the advancing anticyclone more or less “traps” it in place. Very cold air, clear skies and light winds overnight are a recipe for hard frosts.
Hopefully, the diagram below – known technically as a tephigram – helps illustrate this. It is a plot, in the vertical, of the air temperature and the dew point temperature derived from the radiosonde balloon flight at Invercargill at midday Wednesday 17 August. At Invercargill there is already a large mass of sinking, warming (and drying) air above about 5000 ft (see text in red on diagram). This sinking air presses on the (relatively) colder air beneath it, trapping it near the Earth’s surface. In this particular case, the zone of transition between the two different air masses is known as a subsidence inversion. I’ve marked the subsidence inversion on the diagram; it’s the broad blue horizontal bar near the bottom.
The very cold air trapped below about 5000 ft at Invercargill is much less inclined to move around than the air further up in the atmosphere. As I’ve explained above, this is partly because of the advancing anticyclone. But it’s also partly because cold air is less “runny” than warm air. (Treacle flows much more readily when warm than cold). On the right of the diagram below are the winds in the vertical, as they were above Invercargill at midday Wednesday 17 August. Clearly (see text in green on diagram), the one wind barb shown below 5000 ft indicates quite a different flow from all the winds above 5000 ft: the flow near the surface has become decoupled from that above.
In a general sense, this vertical temperature and wind structure is expected to spread over eastern parts of New Zealand during the next few days as the anticyclone moves closer and pressures over the country rise.
Forecast surface pressure field for midnight Wednesday 17 August 2011.
Forecast surface pressure field for midnight Thursday 18 August 2011.
3:30pm Friday 19 August 2011
Finally today, cloud over the south of the South Island has cleared enough to reveal the extent of snow cover there.
Below are two visible satellite images. The first is for around 10:00am on the morning of Wednesday 10 August, some days before this extraordinary cold outbreak. The second is for around 10:00am on the morning of Friday 19 August. Nearly all of the white over Canterbury, Otago, Southland and Fiordland is snow. The imagery only shows the extent of the snow, not its depth.
In New Zealand, the coldest days of the year are usually in late July or early August.
The most significant cold snap since 1995 gripped the nation from late Friday 22 July until late on Monday 25 July. Significant amounts of snow fell in the south and east of both islands, with over 30 cm to near sea level reported in the Christchurch area. Many of the arterial routes through the North and South Islands were closed, including the Waioeka Gorge route from Gisborne to Opotiki.
This cold episode was the result of a river of air flowing straight from the Antarctic ice shelf to New Zealand’s shores. For this to occur, a high pressure zone over Tasmania needs to occur at the same time as a low pressure system deepens over the Chathams area, so that between them a southerly flow extends from the Antarctic to New Zealand for a long enough time to allow polar air to reach the country.
As the weather map above shows, the “polar blast” was just arriving over the far south of the country at midnight Saturday 23 July (behind the old front); it spread across the country during the following two days. Because it is so cold, polar air is generally very dry. But as it passes over the (increasingly warmer) ocean between the Antarctic and New Zealand, it takes up heat and moisture from the sea surface: this is what drives the formation of showers.
Had the polar air arrived a day or so earlier it would have encountered warmer air associated with the low which brought heavy rain to parts of Northland, Bay of Plenty and Gisborne a few days earlier; the result would have been even more snow.
The coldest air made its way across the North Island early on Monday 25 July and a trough following on behind brought a further bout of heavy snow later that day. Heavy showers brought the snow level down as they passed: a centimetre or so of snow even fell in Greytown (about 100 metres above sea level) in the Wairarapa to the east of Wellington.
MetService News Release issued at 12:10pm Thu 4 Nov 2010:
MetService has issued a Special Weather Advisory for the south and east of the South Island. A cold front crossing the South Island on Friday is likely to be followed by chilly southerly winds, with a period of cold rain and snow to 600-700 metres from Southland through Otago and Canterbury to Marlborough.
“After a few mild weeks, this cold change will be very noticeable,” commented MetService Weather Ambassador, Bob McDavitt. “Farmers should note that the combination of wind and cold rain or snow is likely to put stress on vulnerable stock, and travellers are advised that snow may affect higher roads and mountain passes.”
“The weather is also expected to be unsettled over the North Island and the north and west of the South Island on Friday, as other fronts cross these areas,” said Mr. McDavitt. “Check the weather forecast before heading out to that fireworks show.”
New Zealand has been in a strong west to southwest flow for a few days now. This weather regime looks as though it will continue for the next few days.
There are reasons why the weather gets into regimes like this. It has to do with what meteorologists call the “long waves”.
The map below is one way of depicting what the weather pattern about half-way up the troposphere (the troposphere is that part of the atmosphere in which the weather occurs) looked like at midday Thursday 16 September 2010 New Zealand Standard Time, just before the westerlies broke out across the country. In this pattern, there’s nothing that looks like a high, or low, or front. But there is a bunch of wavy lines … which look kind of regular, but not quite.
Now what if those waves could be separated out into longer ones and shorter ones, so we could see what was going on “under the bonnet”? There happens to be a way of doing exactly this; it’s called Fourier analysis. (Here we stand on the brink of numerical weather prediction, but we’ll go there some other time).
The picture below is made from a Fourier analysis of the pattern 12 hours further on from the one shown above. It reveals that, in New Zealand’s latitudes, it’s dominated by a wave which has three troughs (blue) and three ridges (pink) wrapped around the hemisphere. Most important to us is the big area of blue shading – a trough – near New Zealand.
The animation below shows how this trough in the three-wave pattern edges only slowly onto New Zealand during the few days following Thursday 16 September 2010. “Wave three”, as it’s often called by meteorologists, is one of the long waves. It tends to move only slowly – which is why, once it’s gathered a bit of energy, it can influence the weather over a period of days.
We live on the Earth’s surface, at or near the bottom of the troposphere. Down on the Earth’s surface, the isobar maps of the last few days (see animation below) have a certain sameness – they all show
Tightly packed west to southwest isobars over New Zealand, which is why the wind has been more or less from the same direction
Fronts whizzing across the country, which is one of the reasons why showers have come and gone, and the wind shifted around a bit in direction, and gone up and down a bit in strength.
With clear skies over most of Canterbury on Monday, we got a good look at the fresh snow that fell on Sunday (10th May). Here’s the view late Monday morning (around 10:30am) from NASA’s Earth Observing System Terra Satellite,
Based on the coverage in that image and reports from snow observers, the bulk of the snow in South Canterbury fell above about 300 metres, although some places lower down, especially near the foothills, may still have had light snow that didn’t settle appreciably.
While this wasn’t the first cold outbreak of the year, Sunday’s snow event over the lower South Island (including Fiordland, Southland and Otago) was certainly the most significant of 2009 to date. If you have any tales of how you were affected that you’d like to share, please feel free to leave a comment below.